01 October 2011

Anatomy of IPv4 Address

Anatomy of IPv4 Address
Learn the basic fundamentals of IPv4 Address. 



What is IP Address?
You might also think with a same question like this. Probably, you dont care what IP is, what it does and how it works. Right? But for some keen learners, they surely asked themselves just like me =) By the way, have you noticed that in my previous posts i usually included proxy ip addresses? So here let me introduce you the IPv4 address: Its Anatomy.

IP stands for Internet Protocol - will assigned an address to a hosts (PC Computers),devices(router/printers/switch/etc) to help send data and communicate to other hosts over internet.Each devices must have an unique address. The data communicates need to identify with source and destination .

The designers of the IPv4 defined as a 32bits number(4octets - ill discuss later) and is still in use today. But it is now depleted due to growth of the internet. With the depletion scheme, designers developed IPv6(128bits) in 1995. In fact, some countries use IPv6.The 32bits(binary numbers are readable by the computers) and Human-readable dotted decimal address. I think Globe telecom slowly deploy version 6 in its service.

Who manages IP address?
IANA(Internet Assigned Numbers Authority) is the master holder of the IP address.It manages IP allocations worldwide with its delegates: RIR( Regional Internet Registries)assigns IP address blocks to Local Internet Registries(ISP).


The 5 major registries are:


Type of IP addresses
  • Network address -we may call it  network. Group of hosts that have identical bit pattern.
  • Broadcast address - Special address used to send data to all hosts in the network
  • Host addresses - addresses uniquely assigned to the devices in the network 
Type of IP communications
  • Unicast - process of sending a packet from one host to an individual host.
  • Broadcast - process of sending a packet from one host to all hosts in the network.
  • Multicast -process of sending a packet from one host to a selected group of hosts
IP: Private Addresses

Blocks:
  • 10.0.0.0 to 10.255.255.255 (10.0.0.0 /8)
  • 172.16.0.0 to 172.31.255.255 (172.16.0.0 /12)
  • 192.168.0.0 to 192.168.255.255 (192.168.0.0 /16)


Anatomy of IPv4 Address





Dotted Decimal Address
Basically, dotted decimal format simply used to make us remember the addresses easier. Though devices specially Computers do use binary formats. Just imagine, the binary: 0 and 1 combinations and put it in the network layer. Sounds complicated huh? Dont worry, thanks to Dotted Decimal Address. :D

32 bit address
IPv4 is a 32 bit address(binary patterns). Because it consists of 4 octet(1 octet = 1byte/8 bits) so with a simple calculation: 4octets*8bits = 32 bits.

Network Address
In each IPv4 addresses, some portion(high-order bits) represents Network address. It is a group of hosts that have identical bit patterns.

Host Address
Every devices has a uniques IP address. Host address belongs in a certain Network address.(usually in the rightmost in the IP address)



Next stuff,probably(ill write if i dont feel laziness and it depends on the trend technology hehe) ill make a tutorial on how to subnet a classless network(VLSM) fast approach technique that i used in my 2 years in competition(Regional and National Cisco Networking competition). Since i remember it know, i have to make a visual procedure about that. For the meantime, just scan/back read with my posts =)


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